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Referencing Guide: Online/Electronic Journal

APA Referencing and style guide

What is DOI?

A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is a way to keep track of content in a digital environment. Many periodical articles are assigning a DOI to each article in an issue. The DOI is unique and can be used by the reader to locate more citation information about the article. When a DOI is assigned, use it in place of other locating material (URL or database name).

Finding DOI  Introductory tutorial

Article from a journal in a database (no DOI)


Capital letters are used for the first letters of each major word in the title of the magazine.


Badke, W. (2009). How we failed the net generation. Online, 33(4), 47-49.

In-text Citation

(Badke, 2009).

Article from database or Internet (with DOI)

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of Publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000


Whitlock, J., Eells, G., Cummings, N., & Purington, A. (2009). Nonsuicidal self-injury in college populations: Mental health provider assessment of prevalence and need. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy, 23(3), 172-183. doi: 10.1080/87568220902794366

Note: The URL is not used if there is a doi.

In-text Citation

1st citation
(Whitlock, Eells, Cummings, & Purington, 2009).

Subsequent citations
(Whitlock et al., 2009).


Article from the Internet (available to anyone, no DOI assigned)


Negi, N. J., Bender, K. A., Furman, R., Fowler, D. N., & Prickett, J. C. (2010). Enhancing self-awareness: A practical strategy to train culturally responsive social work students. Advances in Social Work, 11(2), 223-234. Retrieved from