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APA (7th edition) Citation Guide




Basic structure for a standalone multimedia work: 

Author, A. A. (year, month day). Title of work [Description]. Source, Production Company, or Label.


You will need to modify the above based on any parts that you don't have, like an exact date or a label name, or add parts that you need. Media sources vary widely, especiallly in who is considered the author. Use this table from p. 341 of the Manual: 


Jump to more specific examples by using the table below: 

Video on DVD Image  TV Episode
Video Online Podcasts or Vodcasts  Online Map


Video on DVD (p. 342+ in Manual)


Lawrence comma F period parenthesis Director parenthesis period parenthesis 2015 parenthesis period The hunger games colon Mockingjay comma part I square bracket DVD square bracket period Lionsgate semicolon Color Force period



Video Online (p. 343-344 in Manual)

Freely Available Online -- YouTube, TED Talks, Vimeo, etc.

"The person or group who uploaded the video is credited as the author for retrievability, even if they did not create the work" (p. 344).

Smithsonian Channel period parenthesis 2019 comma November 1 parenthesis period Pocahontas colon Beyond the myth parenthesis Full episode parenthesis square bracket Video square bracket period YouTube period <a href= “” </a>

From a Subscription Database Only 

Include the database (e.g., Films on Demand) as the production company if it is truly produced by that database and not available anywhere else. 

If you watched it via our subscription, but it is available through a wide variety of sources (e.g., you could purchase it off of Amazon or another website, stream it on Netflix or Hulu, or purchase from ABC, NBC, PBS, etc.), then APA says no need for any database information at all.

Balanga parenthesis Producer parenthesis period parenthesis 2019 parenthesis period The Vikings comma from Paris to Normandy square bracket Film square bracket period Films on Demand period <a href= “” </a>



Music (see p. 344-345 in the Manual)

Modern or Popular Song 

John comma E period parenthesis 1975 parenthesis period Someone saved my life tonight square bracket Song square bracket period On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy period MCA period

Classical Song

Shostakovich comma M period parenthesis 1994 parenthesis period Symphony no period 12 comma op period 114 square bracket Song recorded by USSR TV and Radio Symphony Orchestra square bracket period On Symphony no period 7 comma for string orchestra and harpsichord comma op period 81 semicolon symphony no period 12 comma op period 114 period Olympia period parenthesis Original work published 1961 parenthesis period

Only Released via the Web

Frenchy & the Punk period parenthesis 2020 parenthesis period Hey hey cabaret square bracket Album square bracket period <a href= “” </a>



Image (see p. 346-347 in the Manual)

Important note: Reusing an image (whether that is a table, figure, graph, picture, cartoon, etc.) has slightly different copyright considerations than using information from text-based sources. You can find an image "freely available" on the web, but that does not mean it is free of copyright restrictions. Alternately, giving proper citation (as in the examples here) is not the same thing as copyright clearance.

Copyright must be obeyed in all circumstances, even for in-class-only assignments. Especially if you are reusing an image for publication or dissemination outside of class, please review copyright restrictions. Using items with Creative Commons licenses is a good way to have more flexibility with regards to copyright. APA has a good series of informational posts about copyright permissions here.

Freely Available on the Web

NASA period parenthesis 2016 comma October 26 parenthesis period Sulfur dioxide spreads over Iraq square bracket Image square bracket period <a href= “” </a>

From a Database Only

Stoller comma E period parenthesis 1945 parenthesis period Taliesin III parenthesis Taliesin north parenthesis interior comma living area period ARTSTOR period <a href= “” </a>

From a Collection or Museum

Square bracket Photographs of Robert M period Yerkes square bracket period parenthesis ca period 1917-1954 parenthesis period Robert Mearns Yerkes Papers parenthesis Box 137 comma Folder 2292 parenthesis comma Manuscripts and Archives comma Yale University Library comma New Haven comma CT period




Podcasts & Vodcasts (see p. 345 in the Manual)

Frauenfelder comma M period parenthesis Host parenthesis period parenthesis 2016 parenthesis period South Pole diary comma 2-page RPG adventures comma bitcoin for the befuddled parenthesis No period 168 parenthesis square bracket Audio podcast episode square bracket period In Gweek period Boing Boing period <a href= “” </a>



TV Episode (see p. 343 in the Manual)


Egan comma D period parenthesis Writer parenthesis comma & Alexander comma J period parenthesis Director parenthesis period parenthesis 2006 comma January 10 parenthesis period Failure to communicate parenthesis Season 2 comma Episode 10 parenthesis square bracket TV series episode square bracket period In D period Shore parenthesis Executive producer parenthesis comma House period Heel & Toe Films semicolon Shore Z Productions semicolon Bad Hat Harry Productions semicolon NBC Universal Television semicolon Moratim Produktions period



Online Map

Worldmapper period parenthesis n.d. parenthesis period Population increase 2015-2050 parenthesis Map no period 1052 parenthesis period <a href= “” </a>


Schemm, N.Research, citation, & class guides: APA style (7th ed.): Multimedia.