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APA (7th edition) Citation Guide

In-Text Citation Components

For more guidelines, view sections Chapter 8 in the Publication Manual or consult the APA Style page on In-Text Citations.

APA requires that you provide two pieces of information for an in-text citation:

  • Author last name(s) (this could also be an organization)
  • Publication date

page number is required for direct quotes, and encouraged for paraphrasing.

General Format

Use the last name of the author for your in-text citation.

(Matthews, 2010, p. 14)

Multiple Authors

You will list up to two authors in an in-text citation, separated with an ampersand (&).

(Smith & Miller, 2009)

For references with three or more authors, you will only include the first author and then the words et al.

(Smith et al., 2009)

Smith et al. (2009) summarized it as...

Organizational Author

If the author of a work is an organization, company, or group, list that group's full name in the in-text citation.

(Santa Fe College, 2019)

If the organization has a common acronym, you may introduce it in your first in-text citation and then use the abbreviation in all subsequent citations.

(American Medical Association [AMA], 2007)

(AMA, 2007)

No Author

You should avoid citing works with no author, because you will be unable to verify authority and credibility. Remember that most resources that do not have an individual author listed will have an organization or group responsible for the content.

If there is truly no author for a reference, you use the title, or first few words of the title. Note that you should capitalize the words in the title for the in-text citation. Place in quotation marks if the title is an article or chapter. Italicize if it is a book, webpage, etc.

("How To Find," 2009).

(Oxford English Dictionary, 1989).


You will use the year of the resource in the in-text citation. Even if there is a more detailed date provided, only the year is included in the in-text citation.

(Smith, 2010)

No Date

If there is no date for a reference, use the abbreviation n.d.:

(Santa Fe College, n.d.).

Smith (n.d.) states that...

Same Author/Date

If you have two or more distinct works by the same author and published in the same year, differentiate them with letters. Letters will be assigned alphabetically by the order in which they are listed in the references list.

Rowling, J. K. (1999a). Harry Potter and the chamber of secrets. Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999a)

Rowling, J. K. (1999b). Harry Potter and the prisoner of Azkaban. Arthur A. Levine.

(Rowling, 1999b)

If both items are using n.d. instead of a year, include a hyphen before the differentiating letter.

(Santa Fe College, n.d.-a)

Recall that page numbers and more specific location information as detailed below are only required for direct quotes, but may be used for paraphrasing if you wish.

Page Numbers

If you are using information from a single page, use the abbreviation p.

(Smith, 2009, p. 12)

If your quote (or paraphrase) spans multiple pages, use the abbreviation pp., and separate the two numbers with an en dash (–).

Smith (2009) discusses how the study was received by the media (pp. 12–13).

No Page Numbers

If there are no page numbers on your resource, use section headers, paragraph numbers, or other descriptions to direct your reader to the information you are citing.

  • para. 1
  • Slide 8
  • Conclusions section

One of the author's main points is that "people don't rise from nothing" (Gladwell, 2008, Chapter 1, Section 2, para. 5).


If you are citing a direct quotation from a video, you can use the time stamp in place of a page number within the in-text citation.

Pariser (2011) states that "your filter bubble is your own personal, unique universe of information that you live in online. And wha's in your filter bubble depends on who you are, and it depends on what you do" (4:12).

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In-Text Citations

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