Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA 7th referencing style Examples

This is a guide to using the APA 7th referencing style from the American Psychological Association. It is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.

Using personal communications

  • These can include:-
  • personal interviews
  • emails
  • letters
  • memos
  • phone conversations
  • text messages
  • personal communications are NOT included in the reference list. They are only added as an in-text citation.

Personal communication

Elements of the reference Person - initial(s). last name (personal communication, Month Day, Year)
In-text reference

J. T. Lewis (personal communication, May 14, 2018)

(K. Taylor, personal communication, March 17, 2019)

EndNote reference type Add manually to document using above format.