This course provides an in-depth treatment of modern standard setting methods. The course presents the state-of-the-art in contemporary thinking about the science and practice of setting performance standards. It reflects critically on what the future of standard setting theory and practice can, should, and might accomplish. The course provides the most current and forwardlooking review of the major methods used for setting standards today, and methods that are likely to assume greater prominence in the years to come. Beyond merely describing each method, it provides a summary of research on the method and a critical appraisal of strengths, weaknesses, limitations, and recommendations for future research.